Sunday, May 24, 2020
Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 3923 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Essay any type Level High school Did you like this example? Five 600 word essays on business (Property) skills 1. A Short essay (600 words) on commercial property leases explaining: Ã¢â¬Å"The most important points to note in a commercial leaseÃ¢â¬ . (this is designed to develop your understanding of commercial property leases). The first quality which should be present in any commercial property lease is synergy between the purposes permitted under the terms of the lease, (or that for which it has been used for ten years), and the planning permission which pertains to the property. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Five 600 Word Essays On Business (Property) Skills" essay for you Create order The landlord should be able to prove the appropriate planning permission exists, whilst the tenant will be liable for bringing the premises into a state compliant with any contingent planning requirements, i.e. those introduced during the lifetime of the lease. (Freedman and Steele 1998: p.119) Considering the contemporary trends towards environmental control and improvement, this is no small consideration. The differences between a new lease and an existing lease should also be considered: generally speaking, a completely new lease is likely to generate less costs, fewer complications, and be contingent upon a shorter timeframe than an existing one. Further to this, the issues arising out of Security of Tenure must be carefully weighed: basically, this will determine whether or not the tenant will have the automatic right to a new lease when the existing one expires. The 1954 Landlord and Tenant Act prescribes protection for the tenant on satisfaction of the relevant conditio ns, i.e., Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ There must be a tenancy in the legally defined sense of that status Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" not a licence. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ The tenant must occupy at least part of the leased premises. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Any such occupation must be, at least in part, for the purposes of the tenants business, as prescribed by the lease. However, if such occupation is only partial, the effect of this will be to limit the tenants new tenancy rights to those specific parts of the premises. (Lamont et al. 2005: p.4). The tenant also has to consider the intensity, i.e. the continuity of their use of the premises: if the latter is not constant, they may be obliged to prove unbroken use through a prescribed legal test. (Lamont et al., 2005: p.14). The conventional commercial issues will also need to be considered, i.e. the length of the lease, the rent, whether or not a rent bond or guarantor is required, and whether or not Value Added Tax is chargeable on it. This will depend up on whether or not the landlord has elected to waive VAT exemption, in agreement with HMRC. (Freedman and Steele 1998: p.33) Other key issues include responsibility for insurance(s), the presence of a break clause allowing the landlord an early cessation of the lease, whether or not the premises may be underlet, and the intervals of any integral rent reviews. All of these sub-considerations need to be weighed carefully against the tenants future plans: for example, a clause permitting the user the assignation or subletting the premises does not completely absolve them from reference to the landlord. They may still be entitled to withhold their consent, even if the core purpose of the sub-lessee is in keeping with the original terms of the lease. (Freedman and Steele 1998: p.116) The prospective tenant may need to pursue incorporation of the appropriate Schedule of Condition, taking into consideration any existing issues with the maintenance of the property: this is the mea ns of avoiding the responsibilities contingent upon a full repairing lease. This is, in itself, insufficient to ensure that all future maintenance liabilities are avoided, as they may also be incorporate into service charge clauses. It should also be borne in mind that, as long as they have complied with the regulations on the preconditions of liability, a landlord may be able to commute service charges into additional rent, and pursue recovery in the usual manner, i.e. through the courts. (Freedman and Steele 1998: p.50) As a tenant, you must also establish if the property provides you with everything you require in its unaltered state, or allow you the facility of making such changes as you may consider necessary, i.e. through variations or licenses to alter within the lease? Yielding Up covenants may require that anything added to the premises during the lease is either left in place, or removed: either contingency may involve additional losses for the tenant. (Freedman and Steele 1998: p.103). 2. A Short essay (600 words) outlining the various approaches to Alternative Dispute Resolution and a reflection on its advantages in todays UK market. (This is designed to assess your understanding of the range of methods available for resolving property disputes). In discussing the various approaches possible within Alternative Dispute Resolution in the UK, it is first necessary to recognise the framework and developments which have informed the contemporary arrangements. The market for ADR services was prompted by the desire for or necessity of avoiding formal litigation. As such, the associated frameworks were given additional definition by the Civil Procedure Rules of 1998, as a result of which, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ADR was specifically recognised for the first time at the heart of civil justice procedure, as a tool of active case managementÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ (Mackie et al 2007: p.4). Through this means, ADR accrued much of its value to end users, in terms of cost reduction, flexibility, and timescale of operation. However, it should also be borne in mind that this same flexibility is reflected in the diffuse, protean, and comparatively informal or unstructured nature of many of the available ADR options: as Mackie et al. express it, there are Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦many ways of defining ADR. (2007: p.8). The more prominent may be identified asÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Mediation, or a structured dispute resolution procedure, incorporating third parties, without a legally binding resolution, i.e. (Mackie et al. 2007: p.8). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Evaluative Processes, such as Early Neutral Evaluation (ENE), Judicial Appraisal, or Expert Opinion: all of these are designed to clarify the issues involved at an early stage, and, if they cannot provide resolution, offer initial indication(s) of the likely outcome(s) of any further processes. (Mackie et al. 2007: p.13). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Adjudicative Processes, ranging from the non-binding judgments of third parties, the use of applicable Ombudsman schemes, (to which both parties in the dispute agree), through to actual litigation. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Hybrid Processes, i.e., Executive Tribunals, Mini-Trials, and Med-Arb. As Mackie et al. explain, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Arb-Med may also be attempted, where the third party makes an arbitral decision but keeps it in a sealed envelope while switching to mediation, only revealing the decision if the mediation does not result in settlement. (Mackie 2007: p.14). The nature of ADR with specific regard to property continues to evolve in proportion to the demands of the market, and the established precedents. For example, the repetition of similar kinds of disputes under Mobile Homes Act 1983 has led to their transfer to the Residential Property Tribunals as of April 2010. The intermediate status of the latter is illustrated by the fact that its decisions imply no enforcement powers: instead, possible contingent actions through the County Courts are at the discretion of the plaintiff party. As the convening Tribunal Service itself explains regarding its sub-committees, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦they are quasi-judicial bodies, which means that housing legislation has given them the powers to settle some disputes which wou ld otherwise have to be dealt with by the Courts. They provide an easier and generally cheaper alternative to the Court system. (Residential Property Tribunal Service 2009). In conclusion then, the advantages of ADR in the contemporary market may be regarded as those ofÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Cost: considerably lower, in comparative terms, than those of litigation. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Timeframe: shorter and considerably more flexible than those implied by involvement with the courts. This may be a major issue for parties involved in commercial, i.e. income-contingent outcomes. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Control: in ADR, both parties have the facility of involvement and intervention in the process, rather than being locked into the pre-defined procedures Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" and outcomes Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" of formal court proceedings. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Damage Limitation: the adversarial nature of litigation may permanently destroy relationships between parties which might otherwise b een of commercial value in the future. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Self-Determination: both parties have the possibility of helping to construct creative and flexible solutions. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Confidentiality: the proceedings of a court hearing are a matter of public record, so sensitive commercial details cannot be protected. 3. A Short essay (600 words) identifying the nature of professional ethics together with examples of instances where these might be compromised. Include comment on problems outlined by speaker. Include a reflection as to how standards and attitudes have changed over the past 50 years. (This is designed to test your IT skills and to develop a sense of ethical standards and consumer protection). Any reflection upon professional ethics undertaken at present, it is fair to argue, has to take account of two intersecting and conflicting pressures. In the first instance, there are the growing pressures for commercial organisations to act within the boundaries of corporate social responsibility and sustainability. In the second instance, there are the more recent developments to consider, i.e. the pressure for organisations and individuals to return to older protocols of profit maximization in the face of a recessionary downturn. When these two factors are combined, it becomes apparent that there are no simple answers as to what constitutes an appropriate system of professional ethics; in fact, it is likely that the definition would vary widely, depending on who was asked to provide it. There can be no question about the fact that the bar has been raised immeasurably in terms of ethical expectations over the last fifty years. The number of FTSE 100 companies who publish their own standalone corporate responsibility reports continues to rise, indicating that professional ethics must not only be exercised Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" but be seen to be exercised. (Brewster 2007). In addition, organisations in sectors tinged by ethical lapses have begun to appoint ethics officers, both as a source of in-house expertise, and stakeholder reassurance. (Arnold 2007). Unfortunately, it is also the case that catastrophic ethical failures remain a feature of the corporate landscape, and in fact have become even more damaging. As Rosenthal indicates, these frequently extend to agencies who are responsible for the maintenance of standards. (Rosenthal 2007). However, if the history of ethical attitudes tells us anything of which we may be certain, it is that such attitudes are subject to constant change. As Conroy and Emerson point out, ethical attitudes have followed cyclical patterns, varying slightly from longer term trends, in a manner similar to the economy it self. Within this, attitudes are alternately decreasing, increasing, or changing in terms of their tolerance of un-ethical behaviour. (Conroy and Emerson 2008: p.907). In the present environment, it remains to be seen which side of the ethical equation dominant attitudes will support, i.e., the continual raising of standards, or a return to earlier protocols, such as caveat emptor. As Vickers has argued, it is likely that any new thesis will be followed, inevitably, by an antithesis, in ethical terms. (Vickers 2005). It remains the case that professionals themselves, operating within real organisations and real business pressures, must themselves deliberate between all of the theoretical ethical models available to them. Altman, for example, is clear on the fact that, in terms of Kantian ethics, a corporation, or its officers, should have no other responsibilities than the raising of shareholder value. (Altman 2007: p.261). Fisher and Lovell meanwhile remind us that there a re two basic categories of ethics: the Consequentialist, and the Non-Consequentialist. In the former, the ethical quality of any action is judged through its outcome; in the latter, the action is judged on its own virtues or merits. (Fisher and Lovell, 2006: p.101). If a Consequentialist position is taken, then the individual must decide whether to pursue the general good, such as the best median outcome for the whole of society, or simply a good, such as the best business outcome for their organisation, regardless of the wider societal repercussions. (Fisher and Lovell 2006: p.131) However, if a Non-Consequentialist position is adopted, then the professional must act according to whatever Virtue ethics demands, i.e., judge what is right or wrong from Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦predetermined principles and standardsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦, regardless of the outcome. (Fisher and Lovell 2006: p.101). Ultimately, each professional practitioner and organisation must balance their own priorities and p erspectives somewhere within this nexus of possibilities, judging what is right for their businesses and society as a whole. 4. A short essay (600 words) titled The Current Property Market in the UK and Europe. Although it can justly claim to be the victim of forces beyond its control, the property industry in the UK and Europe is not entirely blameless with regard to the current malaise of the market. Before the collapse of the US sub-prime market, the European market for mortgage backed securities Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" dominated by the UK, was starting to see issues with securitisations amongst non-prime creditors, for example in the buy-to-let sector. (Davies 2006). Halifax Bank of Scotland alone successfully marketed ÃâÃ £500 million worth of mortgage-backed bonds during 2008. (Davies and Croft 2008). More realistic lending practices and revenue expectations now appear prevalent: as Johnson reports, the average gross loan-to-value ratio was 24.1 per cent during 2009, down from 29.8 per cent in the previous year. (Johnson 2010). It remains debatable, however, whether property values or industry practices yet reflect a more sustainable outlook across the sector. As many analyst s have indicated, current property prices are being maintained by two intersecting factors: a low rate of supply, and commensurately low interest rates. However, upward adjustments of the latter will, in all probability, place downward pressure on overall prices. (Leunig et al. 2010). Predicting the final trajectory of asking prices in the immediate future will also depend upon what happens to real disposable incomes, and in this respect, the portents are less than healthy. Although asking prices may begin to rise, it may also be the case that, with less money in general circulation, there will be a flattening out of historical trends in price-earnings ratios, and the cost of property will actually fall in real terms. The lenders preferred solution to this kind of impasse, i.e. the offering of ever higher loan to earnings ratios, may no longer be available: even though some banks are again offering six times salary advances, a return to the days of eight-multiple products appe ars unlikely. (Leunig et al. 2010). Meanwhile, large property companies, such as Great Portland Estates, are seeing the effects of a UK recovery gradually appearing on their balance sheets: the latters ÃâÃ £1.2 billion portfolio saw an 8.7 per cent rise during the final three months of 2009, the best quarterly return for the company in three years. This has facilitated an 11.6 per cent growth in net asset value per share to 251 pence, whilst new purchases in the final quarter of 2009 have already accrued a 14.4 per cent increase in value, or 9.5 per cent net of costs. (Thomas 2010). Despite such successes notably in the capital and other select, higher value enclaves, the overall picture is a more complex one, with divergent trends and contrasting future prospects. For example, according to the IPD monthly property index, the UK commercial property market realized total returns of 22.2 per cent during 2009. (Thomas 2010) However, this encouraging statistic masks sig nificant regional and sectoral differences in fortunes, of which the situation in retail property furnishes but one example. According to DTZ, one fifth of all UK shopping developments, with a combined tag of ÃâÃ £10.1 billion, is currently at risk of defaulting on credit agreements, due to a combination of falling earnings and values. (Thomas 2010). In fact, DTZs Mark Williams asserts that a mere one hundred of the UKs eight hundred and forty retail developments could currently be regarded as prime in real estate terms: he attributes this to a huge overhang of poorer quality centres Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" a legacy of the 1980s boom in development. With their twenty year leases nearing expiry, and outdated facilities becoming less attractive to hard-pressed retailers, their prospects are diminishing. (Thomas 2010) This situation exemplifies a number of similar situations in sub-sectors of the property market, where value and demand differ wildly: as Thomas expresses it in the Financial Times. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦There is a large and growing gap between the so-called secondary or tertiary real estate that fills the towns and urban areas of the UK, and the prime stock of well-located modern property producing income on a long lease that is the exception, rather than the norm. (Thomas 2010). 5. A short essay (600 words) explaining the basic principles of negotiation Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" getting to yes. (IT skills again Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" otherwise hopefully self-explanatory). The idea that there are principles which may be aggregated together to form a best practice within negotiation is one forwarded by commentators such as Fisher, Ury, and Patton in Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving in, (1983). This in turn is predicated upon the ideas of principled negotiation as developed by the Harvard Negotiation Project. (Fisher et al. 1983: p.xii). The collective trope which draws the principles together lays in the idea that purely positional negotiation, i.e. that conducted through the definition and defence of ones own position, is ultimately a poor negotiating technique, and one likely to be counterproductive: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦As more attention is paid to positions, less attention is devoted to meeting the underlying concerns of the partiesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦, and consequently, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Any agreement reached may reflect a mechanical splitting of the difference between final positions rather than a solution carefully crafted to meet t he legitimate interests of the parties. ((Fisher et al. 1983: p.5). The subsequent principles set out the means to avoid such a scenario throughÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Separating the people from the problem. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Focusing on interests rather than positions. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ The invention of options for mutual gain. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ The establishment of objective criteria. The separation of the people from the problem does not quite equate to the depersonalizing of the negotiating process: rather, it implies application of the appropriate relationship management skills. In simple terms, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦If negotiators view themselves as adversaries in a personal face-to-face confrontation, it is difficult to separate their relationship from the substantive problem. (Fisher et al. 1983: p.39). However, the exclusion of personal animosity is only part of this principle. The rest is composed of consciously maintaining the appropriate emotional responses, of und erstanding all of the related perceptions, the development of a relationship, and above all, the establishment of some degree of trust. As J.S. Mill proposed, somebody who knows only their own side of any debate or negotiation, knows little enough of that. (Mill 1843 Ch.2) In other words, achieving a negotiated solution relies upon the understanding of why and how the others position was established. This leads into the next principle of negotiation, i.e. the need to focus on interests, rather than positions. Once the elements which are constructive of the other partys position are understood and disaggregated, it is far more feasible to reach point of mutual agreement. As Fisher et al. point out, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Fighting hard on the substantive issues increases the pressure for an effective solution; giving support to the human beings on the other side tends to improve your relationship and to increase the likelihood of reaching agreement. (Fisher et al. 1983: p.57). It is also the case that the clarification of issues is supportive of the next stage in the process, i.e. the invention of options for mutual gain. This involves considering the issues holistically and creatively, assembling all of the objective third party perspectives which might have some bearing, and, where expedient, involving a detached intermediary to assist in the facilitation of the negotiating process. The fruition of these cumulative stages lays in the establishment of objective criteria through which agreement can be reached. By this stage, any emotional stand-off should have been neutralized, so that the participants know they are discussing issues, rather than their respective personalities: moreover, the real issues have been identified, and unhelpful or generalized positions have been deconstructed. Any unnecessary pressure or compulsion should also have been qualified out of the scenario, leaving only the most desirable and achievable solutions to suggest themsel ves. As Fisher et al. conclude, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Shifting discussion in a negotiation from the question of what the other side is willing to do to the question of how the matter ought to be decided does not end the argument, nor does it guarantee a favourable result. It does, however, provide a strategy you can vigorously pursue without the high costs of positional bargaining. (Fisher et al. 1983: p.96). Bibliography ADR Now Website, (2009), [online]. Available at https://www.adrnow.org.uk/go/Section_1.html [Accessed 2nd February 2010] Altman, M.C., (2007), The Decomposition of the Corporate Body, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol.74, No.3, pp.253-266, Springer, USA. Arnold, M., Private equity chief in warning on code. , Financial Times, November 18 2007, [online] (Updated 18 Nov 2007). Available at https://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/067ae5a2-9605-11dc-b7ec-0000779fd2ac.html , [Accessed 2nd February 2010]. Brewster, D., Sustainability Report Seeks the Facts, Financial Times, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¨Published: Dec 09, 2007, [online] (Updated 9 Dec 2007) Available at https://search.ft.com/ftArticle?queryText=sustainabilityy=4aje=truex=13id=071209000018ct=0page=2, [Accessed 2nd February 2010]. Conroy, S.J., and Emerson, T.L.N., (2008), Ethical Cycles and Trends: Evidence and Implications, Journal of Business Ethics, vol.81, pp.905-911. Davies, P.J., Traders refuse to be spooked as spreads on mortga ge backed bonds hold steady, Financial Times, 27 Sept 2006, [online], (Updated 27 Sept 2006] Available at https://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/2da00a4e-4e4f-11db-bcbc-0000779e2340.html [Accessed 30th January 2010] Davies, P.J., and Croft, J., HBOS returns to mortgage-backed bond market, Financial Times, 21 May 2008, [online] (Updated 21 May 2008] available at https://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/80a77a04-26b8-11dd-9c95-000077b07658.html Accessed 30th Jan 2010] Fisher, C., and Lovell, A., (2006), Business Ethics and Values: Individual Corporate and International Perspectives, 2nd Edition, FT/ Prentice Hall, London. Fisher R., and Ury, W., and Patton, B., (1983), Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving in, Hutchinson, London. Freedman, P., and Steele, K., (1998), Interpreting and Enforcing Commercial Leases, Jordan, Bristol. Johnson, S., UK property funds up 10 per cent, Financial Times, 24 Jan 2010, [online] (Updated 24 Jan 2010] Available at https://financial-times.org/ [Accessed 30th January 2010] Lamont, C., Seifert, A., and Stacey, M., (2005), Lease Renewal, RICS Books, Coventry. Leunig, et al., Property: Are residential property prices now fairly valued? Financial Times, 4 Jan 2010, [online] (Updated 4 Jan 2010) Available at https://financial-times.org/ [Accessed 30th January 2010] Mackie K., Miles, D., Marsh, W., and Allen, T., (2007), The ADR practice guide: commercial dispute resolution Tottel, Haywards Heath. Mill, J.S., (1843), On Liberty, Penguin, London. Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B., and Lampel, J., (1998), Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Prentice Hall, London. Residential Property Tribunal Service Website, (2009), [online]. Available at https://www.rpts.gov.uk/our_services/services.htm [Accessed 30th January 2010] Rosenthal, L., LETTER TO THE EDITOR, Ratings agencies need to learn lessons from Enron, Financial Times 27 Jun 2007, [online]. (Updated 27 Jun 2007) Availab le at https://search.ft.com/ftArticle?queryText=enrony=2aje=truex=10id=070627000938ct=0page=3 [Accessed 3rd February 2010] Roubini, N., Light at the end of the tunnel after a year of stagnation, Financial Times, 23rd Dec 2008, [online]. (Updated 23 Dec 2008) Available at https://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/745b4f46-d090-11dd-ae00-000077b07658.html [Accessed 2nd February 2010] Thomas, D., Great Portland underlines property market recovery, Financial Times, 21 Jan 2010, [online]. (Updated 21 Jan 2010) Available at https://financial-times.org/ [viewed 2nd February 2010] Thomas, D., Failing properties pose danger for market, Financial Times, 25 Jan 2010, [online]. (Updated 25 Jan 2010). Available at https://financial-times.org/ [Accessed 2nd February 2010]. Vickers, M.A., (2005), Business Ethics and the HR Role: Past, Present, and Future, in Human Resource Planning, vol. 28, [online]. Available at https://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5009356449, [Accessed 2nd February 2010]
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
This page provides example sentences of the verb become in all tenses including active and passive forms, as well as conditional and modal forms. Base Form become / Past Simple became / Past Participle become / Gerund becoming Present Simple He often becomes sad when he watches a film. Present Simple Passive None Present Continuous I am becoming used to living in Canada. Present Continuous Passive None Present Perfect He has become a new person since he left her. Present Perfect Passive None Present Perfect Continuous They have been becoming more and more anxious these past few days. Past Simple Alice became angry when she heard the news. Past Simple Passive None Past Continuous He was becoming used to his new life when he had to move again. Past Continuous Passive None Past Perfect Jack had become familiar with the account before the manager arrived. Past Perfect Passive None Past Perfect Continuous She had been becoming more and more anxious before he finally said yes. Future (will) We will become friends. Im sure! Future (will) Passive None Future (going to) He is going to become director soon. Future (going to) Passive None Future Continuous My aunt will be becoming used to the sun this time next week. Future Perfect It will have become perfectly normal by the end of next week. Future Possibility She might become angry will you tell her. Real Conditional If he becomes director, I will become vice-president. Unreal Conditional If she became ill, she would visit a doctor. Past Unreal Conditional If she had become the boss, I would have left the company. Present Modal You should become the next leader. Past Modal They might have become rich! Quiz: Conjugate With Become Use the verb to become to conjugate the following sentences. Quiz answers are below. In some cases, more than one answer may be correct. He often _____ sad when he watches a film.He _____ a new person since he left her.She _____ more and more anxious before he finally said yes.He _____ director soon.He _____ used to his new life when he had to move again.I ______ used to living in Canada.They _____ more and more anxious these past few days.Jack _____ familiar with the account before the manager arrived.It _____ perfectly normal by the end of next week.If he _____ director, I will become vice-president. Quiz Answers becomeshas becomehad been becomingis going to becomewas becomingam becominghave been becominghad becomewill have becomebecomes
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The field of Organizational Behavior (B) Is performance-oriented. 2. Mary Foulest was opposed to TailorÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of specific attention to human needs and relationships In the workplace. We will write a custom essay sample on Midterm study guide or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3. Individual performance Is the foundation of organization performance. 4. African-Americans are one of the fastest-growing groups in the U. S. Employee workforce, as are Asians and Hispanics. 5. A new industrial era began in the United States around the time of the Civil War. 6. A major goal of Capos is to treat its employees and customers with integrity, honesty, and commitment. 7. The formal and modern study of management started around 1900. 8. In 1886, an engineer named Frederick W. Taylor presented a paper on scientific management at a national meeting of engineers that was titled Ã¢â¬Å"The Engineer as an Economist. Ã¢â¬ 9. TailorÃ¢â¬â¢s major thesis was that maximum good for society can come only through the cooperation of management and labor In the application of scientific methods. 10. Managers must deal simultaneously with the Internal and external aspects of organizational behavior. 11. J. M. Curran and W. Edwards Deeming, In the sassÃ¢â¬â¢s, introduced the Importance of quality to the public. . Managers derive power from both organizational and individual sources. 13. A psychological contract is unwritten agreement between an employee and the organization that specifies what each expects to give to and receive from the other. 14. One of the most powerful influences on individual performance is an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s reward system. 15. Power is the ability to get someone to do something you want done, or to make things happen the way you want them to happen. 16. Measures of satisfaction include employee attitudes, turnover, absenteeism, tardiness, and grievances. 17. Common hysterical symptoms that are related to stress Include: Insomnia, excessive perspiration, nervousness, or irritability. Other answers may also be correct, such as overeating, weight gain, weight loss, nail balling, or headaches. 18. Describe the findings of the Hawthorne studies. Chapter 2 1. Organizations can achieve effectiveness only when employees share values. 2. The acceptance of unequal power differs across countries. 3. In countries in which people display high power distance, employees acknowledge the bossÃ¢â¬â¢s authority and typically follow the chain of command. Although culture canÃ¢â¬â¢t be seen, it can be ensued or felt through employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes, emotions, and perceptions. 5. The Southwest airlines approach is to hire for attitude and train the skill. 6. Research indicates that a majority of managers have had at least one mentoring relationship during their careers. 7. The values, norms, customs, and rituals of cultures are Influenced by politics, religion and language. 8. Hypotheses five value dimensions are power distance, Individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and long-term orientation. 9. The concept of uncertainty avoidance refers to the extent to which How to cite Midterm study guide, Papers Midterm Study Guide Free Essays
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about theAssess Client and Manage Patient for Respiratory. Answer: Jake Taylor, a 55 year old male roof gutter installer was admitted to the ED via ambulance following fall from the roof (from the height of two meters). His major complain was pain in the abdomen and left shoulder pain. The nursing assessment priority for Jake from most urgent to least urgent is as follows: Respiratory- The most urgent nursing assessment priority is to conduct respiratory assessment of patient to get information related to respiratory rate, auscultation of the lungs and oxygen saturation rate of patient after fall. This is important because high falls often cause soft tissue injury to lungs and may lead to subdural hematoma (Granhed et al. 2017). Hence, respiratory assessment may give idea about level of respiratory problem or soft tissue injury in patient after fall. GIT and metabolic- This assessment is important for patients because Jake has mainly complained about abdomen pain since admission to the ED. During this assessment, information about past medical history, current lifestyle and medication and nutritional uptake is necessary to determine the impact of any of these factors in contributing to stomach pain. It may indicate about intolerance to some food or side effects of medication since Jake is talking many medications. Onset, intensity and duration of pain will help to determine the correct medication for patient too (Macaluso and McNamara 2012). CVS- As the patient sustained fall from high height, checking vital signs like blood pressure and heart rate is necessary to identify symptoms of anxiety and heart rate variability in patients after fall. It may also give idea about the cardiovascular causes of falls (Palvanen et al. 2014) CNS- CNS assessment is important for Jake because fall from high height might have resulted in brain injury in patient and it may help to predict level of consciousness in patient after fall. This assessment may help the nurse to take further action to minimize future fall incidents. Renal- Falls are associated with decrease in renal function in patient and renal assessment might indicate about fluid balances status and urinary pattern after fall (Gallagher, Rapuri and Smith 2007). Skin- Skin assessment is also a vital assessment for patients as he might have sustained several skin injury and color of skin, temperature and moisture can give idea about any skin infection. Psychological and discharge- Assessment in this area is needed to understand Jakes emotion and view after fall. This will to gather motivation of patient for recovery and mental capacity to handle challenges in the treatment process. The essential nursing assessment for patient with left sided chest pain will be to collect HEART score of patients as it will give data related to history, ECG, age, risk factors and troponin (Six et al. 2013). The data can help to determine the ischemic nature of chest pain in Jake. The PQRST assessment tool can also help to determine the main factor and severity of pain patient. As Jake has history of hypertension, the BP assessment of patient will also be essential to determine the cardiovascular risk status of patient and cardiovascular cause of chest pain (Daskalopoulou et al. 2015). Left sided chest pain is an indication of heart disorder. Blood clot in the lung or pneumothorax can also lead to sharp pain and chances of this are high in Jake due to fall. Te immediate nursing intervention for left sided chain pain will include immediate vital sign assessment of patient and making Jake sit in a semi-Fowler position to review pain. Oxygenation and relevant drugs will also be needed to reduce the intensity of pain (Abbas 2014). The rational for taking HEART score of patient is that this tool considers the risk stratification component responsible for chest pain and so it can help the clinician to make accurate diagnostic and therapeutic choices for patients like Jake (Six, Backus and Kelder 2008). The main advantage of considering semi-fowlers position for patient with chest pain is that it facilitates airway management and relieving breathing difficulty in Jake due to chest pain (Godden and CPAN 2016). In addition, oxygen supplementation decreases the pain level if it is ischemic in nature (Raut and Maheshwari 2016). Two actual nursing complications due to left sided chest pain include shortness of breath in patient and risk of heart failure in patient. The two potential nursing complications evident due to left sided chest pain are development of precarditis and postinfarction angina in patient. Nursing care plan for Jake Taylor Actual Nursing problems Interventions Rationale Evaluation 1. Complain of left sided chest pain in patient Monitor and document characteristics, intensity and heart rate or BP changes due to pain Review past medical history of myocardial infarction in patient This nursing intervention will give idea about level of anxiety and intensity of pain in patients (Than et al. 2014). Pain documentation is crucial for resolution of patients problem 2. Risk of ineffective tissue perfusion due to fall injury and abdominal pain Assessment of skin, peripheral pulse, edema and vital signs in patient Assessment of GI function Due to fall from high height, injuries might contribute to pulmonary complications in patients and abdominal pain. Hence, vital sign and skin assessment is critical to assess GI dysfunction and other complication in Jake after falls (Morton et al. 2017). This intervention is beneficial to prevent risk of complication in patients 3. Risk of excess fluid volume due to fall Auscultate breath sounds Maintain fluid intake in patients Auscultation is beneficial in identify and manage risk of heart failure. Maintaining fluid intake is necessary to enhance fluid retention. Jake also take two cans of beer everyday and restricting the use of beer is also necessary for recovery of patient (Platz et al. 2016) Risk of heart failure and circulatory problem in patient can be controlled 4. Discomfort in patient due to chest and abdominal pain Consider repositioning patients and proving analgesics Positioning will facilitate airway management in patient and analgesics will cause pain relief (Corts, DiCenso and McKelvie 2015) It is an effective intervention to minimize discomfort and intensity of pain in Jake 5. Anxiety or fearful attitude in Jake due to chest and abdominal pain and fall injuries Communicate with patient and identify perception and feelings of anger or grief in patient Orient patient to routine and expected activities Communication with patient is important to know about coping capability of patient and reduce symptoms of depression. Orienting to routine activities distract patients from emotional stress and lead to improvement in signs of depression (Jayasinghe et al. 2014) Patients expression about current and future worries will help to take adequate steps to mitigate symptoms of anxiety in patient 6. Acute abdominal pain in patient Abdominal pain in patient might also be caused by diarrhea. Hence, it is necessary to assess bowel movement in patient Bowel movement will help to determine the appropriate food and medications needed for patient to reduce pain Bowel pattern assessment is critical to proactively assess symptoms of nausea, constipation and diarrhea in patient 7. Risk of bone or muscle injuries due to fall Conduct skeletal/muscular assessment of patient Clinical assessment would help to evaluate the severity of muscle or bone injury On the basis of severity of injury, the nurse can consult the clinician regarding the use of conventional treatment option of medication or going for physiotherapy (Phelan et al. 2014) 8. Prevent infection in patient Implement hand hygiene and infection control intervention for Jake Due to fall, Jake is dependent on major activities of daily living. This may increase the risk of infection in patient. Hence, maintaining adequate hand hygiene and infection prevention technique is essential to prevent infection (Anderson et al. 2014) Infection control will minimize development of other complications in Jake Potential nursing problems Potential nursing problems Interventions Rationale Evaluation Risk of heart attack in patients Regular PQRST assessment is necessary to analyze different factors contributing to pain Routine assessment of chest pain is critical to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction or heart attack in patient PQRST is a structured assessment method to identify the characteristics, intensity and cause of chest pain. Increased dependence in activities of daily living Provide assistance to Jake while walking, moving, dressing and going to washroom Support is ADLs is critical to complete daily life activities and reduce risk of fall in health care setting It is most effective step to support patient during difficulties in ADLs. Low physical activity and risk of obesity related complication in patient Provide guidance in physical therapy and moderate exercise intervention This I s essential to maintain minimum level of physical activity in patients Moderate exercise improved quality of life of critically ill patients Discharge planning: Jake is on certain medications currently. Hence, it will be necessary to educate patient about side-effects and precautions needed for taking the medication. This is necessary because Jake is complaining about stomach pain and certain medications may also contribute to constipation (Ho et al. 2014). Other discharge education necessary for Jake will to provide information about types of diet and fluid intake. This is necessary because to control stomach and complicated outcomes in patient As fall from high height has also affected mobility of Jake, it will be necessary for Jake to take precaution while moving from one place to another. Hence, assistive device and ways of using them will be taught to Jake (Doherty?King et al. 2014) . As Jake has chest pain and he is a patient with heart disorder, another important discharge education will be forbid patient from smoking and consuming bear. This is necessary to reduce further complications (Morris et al. 2013). Reference Abbas, A.D., 2014. Evaluation Of Nurses Practices Concerning Chest Pain Management For Patients In The Emergency Unit.Kufa Journal for Nursing Sciences, 4(1). Anderson, D.J., Podgorny, K., Berros-Torres, S.I., Bratzler, D.W., Dellinger, E.P., Greene, L., Nyquist, A.C., Saiman, L., Yokoe, D.S., Maragakis, L.L. and Kaye, K.S., 2014. Strategies to prevent surgical site infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 update.Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology,35(S2), pp.S66-S88. Corts, O.L., DiCenso, A. and McKelvie, R., 2015. Mobilization Patterns of Patients After an Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Pilot Study.Clinical nursing research,24(2), pp.139-155. Daskalopoulou, S.S., Rabi, D.M., Zarnke, K.B., Dasgupta, K., Nerenberg, K., Cloutier, L., Gelfer, M., Lamarre-Cliche, M., Milot, A., Bolli, P. and McKay, D.W., 2015. The 2015 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension.Canadian Journal of Cardiology,31(5), pp.549-568. Doherty?King, B., Yoon, J.Y., Pecanac, K., Brown, R. and Mahoney, J., 2014. Frequency and duration of nursing care related to older patient mobility.Journal of Nursing Scholarship,46(1), pp.20-27. Gallagher, J.C., Rapuri, P. and Smith, L., 2007. Falls are associated with decreased renal function and insufficient calcitriol production by the kidney.The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology,103(3), pp.610-613. Godden, B. and CPAN, C., 2016. Airway issues.Perianesthesia Nursing Care, p.23. Granhed, H., Altgrde, E., Akyrek, L.M. and David, P., 2017. Injuries Sustained by Falls-A Review.Trauma Acute Care. Ho, P.M., Lambert-Kerzner, A., Carey, E.P., Fahdi, I.E., Bryson, C.L., Melnyk, S.D., Bosworth, H.B., Radcliff, T., Davis, R., Mun, H. and Weaver, J., 2014. Multifaceted intervention to improve medication adherence and secondary prevention measures after acute coronary syndrome hospital discharge: a randomized clinical trial.JAMA internal medicine,174(2), pp.186-193. Jayasinghe, N., Sparks, M.A., Kato, K., Wyka, K., Wilbur, K., Chiaramonte, G., Barie, P.S., Lachs, M.S., O'Dell, M., Evans, A. and Bruce, M.L., 2014. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults hospitalized for fall injury.General hospital psychiatry,36(6), pp.669-673. Macaluso, C.R. and McNamara, R.M., 2012. Evaluation and management of acute abdominal pain in the emergency department.International journal of general medicine,5, p.789. Morris, P.B., Ference, B.A., Jahangir, E., Feldman, D.N., Ryan, J.J., Bahrami, H., El-Chami, M.F., Bhakta, S., Winchester, D.E., Al-Mallah, M.H. and Shields, M.S., 2015. Cardiovascular effects of exposure to cigarette smoke and electronic cigarettes.Journal of the American College of Cardiology,66(12), pp.1378-1391. Morton, P.G., Fontaine, D., Hudak, C.M. and Gallo, B.M., 2017.Critical care nursing: a holistic approach. Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Palvanen, M., Kannus, P., Piirtola, M., Niemi, S., Parkkari, J. and Jrvinen, M., 2014. Effectiveness of the Chaos Falls Clinic in preventing falls and injuries of home-dwelling older adults: a randomised controlled trial.Injury,45(1), pp.265-271. Phelan, E.A., Mahoney, J.E., Voit, J.C. and Stevens, J.A., 2015. Assessment and management of fall risk in primary care settings.The Medical clinics of North America,99(2), p.281. Platz, E., Lewis, E.F., Uno, H., Peck, J., Pivetta, E., Merz, A.A., Hempel, D., Wilson, C., Frasure, S.E., Jhund, P.S. and Cheng, S., 2016. Detection and prognostic value of pulmonary congestion by lung ultrasound in ambulatory heart failure patients.European heart journal,37(15), pp.1244-1251. Raut, M.S. and Maheshwari, A., 2016. Oxygen supplementation in acute myocardial infarction: To be or not to be?.Annals of cardiac anaesthesia,19(2), p.342. Six, A.J., Backus, B.E. and Kelder, J.C., 2008. Chest pain in the emergency room: value of the HEART score.Netherlands Heart Journal,16(6), pp.191-196. Six, A.J., Cullen, L., Backus, B.E., Greenslade, J., Parsonage, W., Aldous, S., Doevendans, P.A. and Than, M., 2013. The HEART score for the assessment of patients with chest pain in the emergency department: a multinational validation study.Critical pathways in cardiology,12(3), pp.121-126. Than, M., Aldous, S., Lord, S.J., Goodacre, S., Frampton, C.M., Troughton, R., George, P., Florkowski, C.M., Ardagh, M., Smyth, D. and Jardine, D.L., 2014. A 2-hour diagnostic protocol for possible cardiac chest pain in the emergency department: a randomized clinical trial.JAMA internal medicine,174(1), pp.51-58.
Friday, March 27, 2020
What is a Rhetorical Situation? A rhetorical situation pertains to the circumstances of a rhetorical act, such as writing or speaking (Norquist 2008). It refers to the interplay of a rhetor (the speaker/writer), audience and purpose of the writing. Kunka adds three more elements- topic, context, culture (2006). Need essay sample on "What is a Rhetorical Situation?" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Several factors affect how a writer projects in his writing- age, experience, gender, location, political beliefs, parents, peers and education (Kunka 2006). These can influence the voice of the words be it formal or informal. It provides an impression on the humanity of the writer and how he can connect with his readers/ audience. The audience makes the second piece of the rhetorical situation. Knowing the target audience can affect the style and content of the text. The same factors affecting how a writer writes, such as age, experience, gender, et al. can also influence how the audience will react. For example, if one is writing for the Wall St. Journal, the angle will be more on the business side. The writing style will then be objective. Undergraduates Usually Tell EssayLab writers:How much do I have to pay someone to write my assignment online?Essay writers propose:Custom Essay Helper Paper Writers For Hire Paying Someone To Write a Paper Cheap Custom Essays But it is not enough to know the writer and the audience. It is also important to decipher the purpose or the objective of the writing. This objective will define how the text will flow, whether it will be expressive, objective or persuasive. The writer, audience, purpose elements of a rhetorical situation is not complete without understanding the topic (the subject), and context (situation) and culture (background). It is important to know this for the genre of writing hinges on the relationships of these elements. Thus is it important to know the different genres/ categories in writing, such as fiction, autobiographical, criticism (Kunka 2006), It will come handy in helping the writer adapt his writing style on the purpose, context, culture and his intended audience and be able to communicate appropriately. Works Cited: Kunka, J. The Rhetorical Situations. OWL Materials. Norquist, R. Rhetorical Situation. About.com: Grammar and Composition. 2008.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Biography of Bobby Seale, Black Panther Party Co-founder Bobby Seale (born October 22, 1936) co-founded the Black Panther Party with Huey P. Newton. The organization, which was the most well-known group launched during the black power movement, stood out for its free breakfast program and emphasis on self-defense- a departure from the nonviolent philosophy advocated by civil rights activists. Fast Facts: Bobby Seale Known For: Co-founder, along with Huey P. Newton, of the Black Panther PartyBorn: October 22, 1936 in Dallas, TexasParents: George and Thelma SealeEducation: Merritt Community CollegeSpouse(s): Artie Seale, Leslie M. Johnson-SealeChildren: Malik Seale, Jaime SealeNotable Quote: Ã¢â¬Å"You dont fight racism with racism, the best way to fight racism is with solidarity. Early Life and Education Bobby Seale, the first child of George and Thelma Seale, was born on October 22, 1936. He grew up with a brother (Jon), a sister (Betty), and a first cousin (Alvin Turner- the son of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s identical twin). In addition to Dallas, the family lived in other Texas cities, including San Antonio. Seales parents had a rocky relationship, separating and reconciling repeatedly. The family struggled financially and sometimes rented out parts of their home to other families to earn additional income. Seales father, George, was a carpenter who once built a home from the ground up. He was also physically abusive; Bobby Seale later described being whipped with a belt by his father at age 6. When the family moved to California, George Seale struggled to get carpentry work or join a union, as unions often excluded African Americans during the Jim Crow era. When George Seale did manage to enter a union, he was one of just of three black men in the state with union membership, according to Seale. As a teenager, Seale hauled groceries and mowed lawns to earn extra cash. He attended Berkeley High School but dropped out to sign up for the US Air Force in 1955. After a conflict with a commanding officer, Seale was dishonorably discharged. However, this setback did not deter him. He earned his high school diploma and made a living as a sheet metal mechanic for aerospace companies. He also worked as a comedian. In 1960, Seale enrolled in Merritt College, where he joined a black student group and his political consciousness took hold. Two years later, he met Huey P. Newton, the man with whom he would start the Black Panthers. Founding the Black Panther Party At a 1962 demonstration against the Kennedy Administrations naval blockade of Cuba, Seale befriended Huey Newton. Both men found inspiration in black radical Malcolm X and were devastated when he was assassinated in 1965. The next year, they decided to form a group to reflect their political beliefs, and the Black Panthers were born. The organization reflected Malcolm XÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of self-defense by any means necessary. The idea of armed African Americans proved controversial in the broader United States, but as the civil rights movement waned following the assassination of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., many young black Americans leaned towards radicalism and militancy. The Black Panthers were particularly concerned about racism in the Oakland Police Department, but before long, Panthers chapters sprang up nationwide. The Black Panther Party became most well known for their 10-point plan and free breakfast program. The 10-point plan included culturally-relevant teaching, employment, shelter, and exemption from military service for African Americans. Legal Battles In 1968, Bobby Seale and seven other protesters were charged with conspiring to incite a riot at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. When the trial date arrived, Seales lawyer was ill and unable to appear; the judge denied the request to delay the trial. Seale claimed the right to defend himself in order to advocate for his own constitutional rights, but the judge did not allow him to give an opening statement, cross-examine witnesses, or speak to the jury. Seale contended that the judge had denied him his right to counsel, and he began to speak out in protest during the proceedings. In response, the judge ordered him bound and gagged. Seale was chained (later strapped) to a chair, with his mouth and jaw strapped shut, for several days of the trial. Ultimately, the judge sentenced Seale to four years in prison for contempt of court. That sentence was later overturned, but it did not mark the end of SealeÃ¢â¬â¢s legal troubles. In 1970, Seale and another defendant were tried for killing a Black Panther believed to be a police informant. The hung jury resulted in a mistrial, so Seale was not convicted of the 1969 murder. As his court battles unfolded, Seale wrote a book tracing the history of the Black Panthers. The book, published in 1970, was titled Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton. But the time Seale spent behind bars awaiting the outcomes of various court cases had taken a toll on the group, which began to fall apart in his absence. The settling of the court cases saw Seale take charge of the Panthers again. In 1973, he changed focus by putting his bid in to become the mayor of Oakland. He placed second in the race. He left the Panthers the following year. In 1978, he wrote his autobiography, A Lonely Rage. Later Years In the 1970s, the black power movement subsided, and groups like the Black Panthers ceased to exist. Deaths, prison sentences, and internal conflicts spurred by initiatives like the FBIÃ¢â¬â¢s Counterintelligence Program played a role in the unraveling process. Bobby Seale remains politically active, giving talks on his life and activism at college campuses and other venues. More than 50 years after the Black Panthers formed, the group continues to influence politics, pop culture, and activism. Sources Ã¢â¬Å"Bobby Seale.Ã¢â¬ PBS.org.Bennett, Kitty. Bobby Seale: Black Panther leader was one of the Chicago Eight. AARP Bulletin, 27 August, 2010.Glass, Andrew. Kennedy imposes naval blockade of Cuba, Oct. 22, 1962. Politico, 22 October, 2009.Seale, Bobby. Ã¢â¬Å"Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party.Ã¢â¬ 1970.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Ocean power 2 - Research Paper Example Despite it being responsible for global warming and acid rains it is also accountable for the electricity generated through fossil fuel. The utilization of tidal energy, it decreases the necessity of nuclear power (Charlier, 92). Nuclear power is mainly linked to the risk of direct radiations to humans. Ocean power involves technologies that are advanced in the consumption of the energy from the sea by crashing the waves during the movement of the tides. The most obvious type of ocean energy is the power of waves. In converting energy, wave power is captured near the shore and offshore. Most importantly, all the types of ocean power produce electricity through the conversion of the kinetic energy in the water and thermal energy being converted into mechanical energy that stirs the turbine(Brewster, 109). In conclusion, the ocean thermal energy conversion is the least available type of ocean power and therefore the least used in the U.S (Charlier, 145). Most of the heat stored in the oceans forms the largest solar power collections in the world. Additionally, most of the energy from the ocean waves is basically available source of electricity in future. It is very consistent and predictable than all other renewable resources such as wind and solar. Wave energy demonstrates the best economic production of electric power would be integrated of smart technologies that support wave form of energy (Charlier,